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Streetlights Knowledge About Street Lighting

Streetlights Knowledge About Street Lighting

Streetlights are lamps that provide lighting for roads and refer to lamps that are part of the road lighting range in traffic lighting. Streetlights are frequently employed in a variety of settings where illumination is required. Lamps, wires, light sources, light poles, light arms, flanges, and integrated pieces make up this system.

1. Brief history

Lighting fixtures had to be installed outside the windows facing residential streets in Paris at the beginning of the 16th century. Many streetlights appeared on the streets of Paris at fourteen Louis. Louis XIV, also known as the "Sun King," officially promulgated the Urban Road Lighting Act in 1667. According to legend, it was precise because of the promulgation of this decree that Louis XIV's reign was dubbed the "Bright Age" in French history.

Streetlights use lighting technology and are appropriate for streetlights. The goal is to create an electronic energy-saving street lamp with long life, low power consumption, a high-power factor, and a low current harmonic content. The high-efficiency electronic energy-saving streetlamp includes power grid high-voltage leakage branches R1 and C1, rectifier bridges D1-D4, power factor correction branches C2, D5, and D6, high-intermediate frequency glitch filter branches L1, L3, and high-frequency oscillation circuits connected in sequence BG1-BG2, start branch L2, C7, and tube T; saves electricity by 80% compared to the previous streetlamp; harmonic content THD 25%, extends the life.

2. Design guidelines for urban street lighting

The urban road lighting design standard is a state-issued standard used to regulate lighting requirements in the construction of urban roads. Please see "Urban Road Lighting Design Standards" for more information. Within the city, roads with specific technical conditions and facilities for vehicles and pedestrians. Urban roads are classified into expressways, main roads, secondary roads, branch roads, and residential roads based on their status in the road network, transportation functions, and service functions of buildings and urban residents along the roads.

3. Parameter for lighting

The efficiency of a luminaire is defined as the ratio of the total luminous flux emitted by the luminaire to the total luminous flux emitted by all light sources contained within the luminaire under identical operating conditions. After a specified period of use, the ratio of the average illuminance or average brightness on a specified surface to the average illuminance or average brightness is obtained when the device is newly installed under the same conditions. The vertical distance between the light center and the road surface is called the luminaire mounting height. Spacing between luminaires.

Road width is effective. The theoretical width of the pavement used in road lighting design is proportional to the road's actual width, the lamp overhang length, and the lamp arrangement. When all the lamps are on one side, the effective road width equals the actual road width minus one overhang length. When the lamps are staggered and opposite on both sides, the effective road width equals the actual road width minus two overhang lengths. When the lamps and lanterns are symmetrically arranged in the center of the double-strip road, the effective width of the road equals the road's actual width.

Inductive direction. Properly installed light poles and lamps along the road can provide drivers with visual information about the forward direction, line shape, and slope of the road, a property of lighting facilities called inductiveness.

The brightness of the road surface is average. The International Commission on Illumination's (CIE) relevant regulations defines the average value of the brightness of each point measured or calculated at a preset point on the road surface.

Elevation angle of lamp: The elevation angle of each street is determined by the street width of the lamp and the lamp's light distribution curve. When the lamp head is adjustable, the light source's centerline should be between L / 3 and 1 / 2 of the road width. After installing the lamp body, the lamp head side of the long arm lamp (or arm lamp) should be 100 mm higher than the pole side.

4. Parameter for the pavement

The longitudinal uniformity of the luminance of the road surface. The ratio of the lowest to highest brightness along the same lane centerline. The illuminance of the road surface on average. The average value of each point's illuminance is measured or calculated in accordance with applicable CIE regulations at predetermined points on the road. Illuminance uniformity on the road surface. The ratio of the road's minimum illumination to the road's average illumination. maintained the road surface's average illuminance It is the average brightness used in the design calculation after factors such as attenuation of luminous flux when the light source is to be replaced and lamp efficiency decline due to pollution (i.e., maintenance factor) are considered. the upward ratio of light. When the luminaire is installed, the luminous flux emitted in the horizontal direction and above constitutes a percentage of the luminaire's total luminous flux.

Glare. A visual phenomenon that produces an unpleasant sensation or impairs one's ability to observe an object or detail due to an insufficient brightness distribution or brightness range in the field of view, or due to excessive contrast.

The ratio of surrounds. The ratio of the average horizontal illuminance outside the roadway in a 5m wide area to the average horizontal illuminance on an adjacent 5m wide roadway.

Areas of contention. Areas such as road entrances, intersections, and crosswalks are included. Between vehicles, lighting power density is high in this area (of the road surface). Power consumption of lighting installation per square meter of pavement (including ballast power consumption).

Unit of remote terminal control. The slave station is a device that is monitored by the master station and performs protocol-specific functions such as remote data collection, processing, sending, receiving, and output execution.

5. Classification of roads

5.1. Urban road

5.2. Expressway

In the city, roads with long distances, heavy traffic, and services for fast traffic. Between the expressway's opposing lanes are set up intermediate lanes and import and export are completely or partially controlled.

5.3. Main road

The main roads connecting the city's major districts are divided into three or four lanes for motor vehicles and non-motor vehicles.

5.4. Collector Road

Together with the main roads, the roads are formed by the road network and serve as a means of distribution.

5.5. Branch road

The road that connects the secondary road to the road that runs through the residential area.

5.6. Residential Road

Residential streets and roads are designed primarily for pedestrians and non-motorized vehicles.

6. Standard for street light height

Because height determines the field of view, selecting an appropriate height determines the streetlight's lighting field of view.

Lamps and lanterns must be installed at the same height (the height from the center of the light to the ground). Curved small lights One-meter luminaires Approximately 5-6 meters Ordinary Street lighting fixtures with long arms and chandeliers 6.5-7.5 m Arc lights for the fast lane no less than 8 meters Arc-shaped lights for slow lanes There are no special lights designed to be placed below 6.5 meters. For installation purposes, the lamp's height should be equal to the width of the road to be illuminated. When only one side of the room is illuminated H≌L When both sides are lit HL / 2 Where H denotes the lamp's installation height (m) L is the width of the road (m).

6.1. Conventional lighting

The luminaire is a method of lighting the light poles, which are typically 15m or less in height and are spaced evenly along one or both sides of the road or in the middle of the roadway. When this method of lighting is used, the lamp's longitudinal axis is perpendicular to the road's longitudinal axis, directing most of the light emitted by the lamp toward the road's longitudinal axis.

6.2. High mast lighting

For large-area lighting, a group of luminaires is a type of lighting that is mounted on a light pole with a height of at least 20m.

6.3. Semi-height lighting (also called mid-pole lighting)

To illuminate, a group of lamps is mounted on a pole between 15-20m in height. When configured in the conventional lighting mode, the lamp is classified as conventional lighting; when configured in the high pole lighting mode, the lamp is classified as high pole lighting.

6.4. Cut-off luminaire

The angle between the luminaire's maximum light intensity direction and its downward vertical axis is between 0 and 65 degrees, and the maximum allowable light intensity values in the 90- and 80-degree angles are 10cd / 1000lm and 30cd / 1000lm, respectively. The maximum light intensity in the 90 ° angle direction, regardless of the light source's light flux, must not exceed 1000cd.

6.5. Semi-cut-off luminaire

The angle between the luminaire's direction of maximum light intensity and its downward vertical axis is between 0 and 75 degrees. Maximum allowable light intensities in the 90° and 80° angles are 50cd / 1000lm and 100cd / 1000lm, respectively. The maximum light intensity in the 90 ° angle direction, regardless of the light source's light flux, must not exceed 1000 cd.

6.6. non-cut-off luminaire

The lamp's maximum light intensity is not restricted in any direction, but the maximum value of light intensity in the 90°angle direction must not exceed 1000cd 

6.7. Floodlight

The beam spreading angle (the angle between two directions where the light intensity is 1/10 that of the peak light intensity) is greater than 10 °, and it is used as a floodlight projector. Generally, this object rotates and points in any direction.

7. What is the distance between street lights?

The distance between street lights is controlled by the type of roads, such as manufacturing roads, rural roads, or urban roads, as well as the strength of the street lights, which range from 30W to 120W and 150W. The road width and the height of the street light poles determine the distance between street lights, which must be estimated using a meter. Inadequate spacing between street lamp poles and excessive elevation angles of the lamps are insufficient to give enough lighting. At the moment, several cities' street lamp poles are either too massive or too utilitarian to pursue artistic and aesthetic goals. This results in excessively bright road lights. The distance between street lights on urban roads varies according to the road density. In general, the distance between street lights on urban roads is between 25 and 50 meters. If the street lighting is modest, such as landscape lights or courtyard lights, the distance is dim when the light source is dim. It can be reduced somewhat and spaced around 20 meters apart, depending on customer requirements or the design.

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